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OpTaliX ®最佳光學,薄膜與照明設計軟體




為什麼要使用OpTaliX  ?!

n  高效生產率:OpTaliX®的邏輯結構,人性化圖形介面(GUI)及其一致命令介面、讓您可以快速輕鬆得到最佳結果。

n  速度:OpTaliX®是一種實現軟體代碼最佳計算效率的光學設計程式。它使用最新和最快的編譯器和軟體技術。

n  分析:從幾何和衍射分析,多重容差分析,傳輸分析,極化分析等多種分析功能中獲取您設計的最多資訊。

n  精度:OpTaliX®在整個程式中使用雙精度(64位)內部算術表示。它具有最精確的最先進的演算法,而不會影響通用性。

n  優化:OpTaliX®提供了幾種優化演算法來獲得超級設計。用於構建自定義錯誤函數的非常靈活的方法可以讓您解決幾乎任何優化問題。

n  案例設計:可以從出版刊物和專利文獻以及超過8000個目錄中開始輕鬆使用超過500種設計。

n  相容性:OpTaliX®可以簡單和其他光學設計和薄膜封裝軟體進行存取,以便您可以與他人協作或檢查設計。

n  質量:計數穩定性和準確性。在我們日常設計工作中,我們經常使用OpTaliX®進行全面測試。測試用例與代碼並行開發,beta測試在選定的客戶站點進行。

n  24小時內提醒您的問題。報告的錯誤將立即修復並提供下載。

n  經驗:OpTaliX®是由光學設計師編寫的,它在實際的鏡頭設計,光學工程和軟體開發方面擁有25年經驗。


Non-Sequential Surfaces

In non-sequential models, surfaces are ray traced in the order they are encountered by the light rays rather than the order in which they are entered. The following examples illustrate optical systems which require non-sequential modelling.

Segmented Window: Rays near the edge of the segmented window undergo multiple reflections (due to total internal reflection) between the outer surfaces of the window. They do not pass through the lens, hence, a part of the aperture is virtually obstructed.
Lightpipe : The ray path (i.e. order of surface intersection) changes as a function of the position of the object and of the ray direction.

Bubble : A spherical bubble contained in solid glass. The program automatically detects total internal reflection (TIR) condition.
Refractive Octogon : A sequence of plano surfaces forming an octogon with a hollow internal octogon structure. The model assumes parallel rays entering at a specific angle. Exiting rays are formed by refraction and total internal reflection (TIR) at the octogon facets.

Surface Apertures

Complex apertures can be constructed by combining basic apertures (circle, rectangle, ellipse). Each basic aperture can be transmitting or obstructing. Up to 10 basic apertures may be logically combined by AND or OR operators and assigned to each surface. All apertures may be decentered and rotated.

Four obstructing aperture elements are used to simulate the effects of secondary mirror and spider in a Cassegrain telescope.Three elliptical transmitting aperture elements were logically combined (OR operation) to simulate a multi-aperture system.Create unusual aperture shapes by logically combining basic apertures (four rectangular apertures with appropriate offsets).

Polygon Apertures:

Polygon apertures allow the definition of complex and unusual apertures. Polygons need NOT be convex and any shape is allowed as indicated in the figures below. The only condition is that they must be closed, i.e. the last vertex is the same as the first vertex. The screen shots below indicate the used area on a surface by means of ray intersection patterns on the corresponding surface.


Complex polygons with many vertices (up to 50) can also be read in from a file and directly associated to a surface.

Gradient Index (GRIN)

Gradient index raytrace for radial, axial and mixed gradients. Supported profiles are :

SELFOCTM radial gradient
GLC (Gradient Lens Corporation)
GRADIUMTM axial gradient
GrinTech, Jena
Linear axial gradient
University of Rochester gradient
Luneberg gradient
Spherical gradient
Maxwell's fisheye gradient

Holographic/Diffractive Surfaces

The optical properties of a holographic surface are based on diffraction at the effective grating spacing seen at the local intersection point of a ray. Commonly, holographic surfaces are also denoted as diffractive surfaces. To model these effects, several types of diffractive surfaces are available in OpTaliX.
  • Linear grating
  • Optical hologram, formed by interfering two beams of light,
  • Computer-generated holograms (CGH) with a user specified radial symmetric phase distribution,
  • Computer-generated holograms (CGH) with a user specified asymmetric (two-dimensional) phase distribution,
  • ''Sweatt'' model.
    Two-Point Hologram:
    This type of holographic surface describes the interference pattern of two point sources, i.e. two spherical waves, which includes plane wavefronts as the limiting case.

Zoom and Multi-Configuration

Any parameter in OpTaliX may be specified for multi-configuration (zoom) systems. Fixed-focus (i.e. "non-zoomed") systems are special cases of the general multi-configuration concept. For instance, "zoomable" data are wavelength, system and surface apertures, fields, radii of curvature, axial separations, tilt and decenter values, and glass types, to name just a few.

Multiple positions may be optimized simultaneously, where each position may have its own merit function.
Zoom/multiconfiguration positions can be plotted with individual X/Y-offsets, giving full control of the plot layout. Zero offsets perfectly overlay all positions.

Array Surfaces / Elements

Optical elements can be arranged in a regular grid, i.e. they are repeated many times at specified X/Y locations with respect to the local coordinate of a surface. Examples of array elements are (see also Figure above),

a) fresnel lens array,
b) spherical lens array,
c) GRIN rod array,
d) triangular surface array.

Array properties can be combined with any type of surface, i.e. spherical, aspheric, Fresnel, GRIN and so on.

Wavefront plot of lens array with spherical surfaces. The array extension is defined by size and shape of the aperture of the base (channel) surface.

Fresnel Lens

Fresnel lenses are constructed such that the curved surface of a lens is collapsed in annular zones to a thin plate. As shown in the figure below, this has the refracting effect of the lens without its thickness or weight. Such lenses are often used as condensors in overhead projectors, spotlights and signal lamps.

The annular facets are modelled exactly in OpTaliX. Thus, various depths of the annular facets in a Fresnel lens lead to different aberrations. Fresnel surfaces can be refracting, reflecting, aspheric and decentered/tilted. The may also be grouped in arrays.

Light Pipe, Step Index Fiber

In light pipes and step index fibers, rays enter a tube (being either solid or hollow) and reflect from the walls in an indeterminate number of times until they emerge. The end surfaces may have any form (spherical, aspherical, Fresnel, etc.) and may also be arbitrarily tilted.

Light pipes are formed by extruded surfaces and are handled by the sequential surface model. Circular or rectangular cross sections are supported. All forms may be tapered. Rectangular light pipes can also be sheared (see figure below). Violation of total internal reflection (TIR) in solid pipes is taken into account.

Global Coordinates

F-Theta ScannerGlobal coordinates locate a surface with respect to the coordinate system of any prior surface and are particularly useful for optical systems that contain tilts and decenters.

In the example to the left all lenses are globally referenced to an entrance port, whereas the scan mirror rotates with respect to a decentered pivot point. The mathematics for all the required coordinate transformations are performed by OptaliX internally.

Geometric Analysis Capabilities

Spot Diagrams:
Spots may be displayed vs. field, wavelength and zoom position, overlayed or separated.
Rim ray aberrations may be shown as transverse ray aberrations or as the optical pathlength difference. Aberrations of multi-configuration (zoom) systems are plotted on one sheet, which provides an excellent overview (no need to plot each position separately).
Astigmatism / Field Curvature
The longitudinal field curvature plot yields an excellent picture of the correction of the Petzval curvature and the astigmetism. Shown for all wavelengths used in the optical system.
Grid Distortion:
Shows the distortion of a rectangular object grid as imaged through the optical system.
The vignetting plot shows the mechanical limitation or obstruction of oblique beams. It reduces the off-axis illumination in the image. However, it also plays an important role in determining the off-axis image quality.
Plots the used portion of the light beams at selected surfaces. Often used in conjunction with the vignetting analysis, since the plot shows how individual beams are truncated.
Secondary Spectrum:
Longitudinal position of the paraxial focus as a function of wavelength, here shown for a decent apochromatic refractor lens.
Transmission vs. Surface:
Shows the contribution of each surface to the transmission losses in an optical system. Plotted for all fields defined in the system. The plot to the left shows a system with 13 lenses (26 surfaces). Each surface contributes between 4% and 9% to the transmission loss (depending on the index of refraction of a lens). The inner lenses are anti-reflection coated while the outer lenses are not.

Transmission can also be plotted against wavelength or field.

Diffraction Analysis Capabilities

Diffraction analysis in OpTaliX include:
  • Wavefront aberration vs. field or wavelength,
  • Diffraction point spread function (PSF)
  • Encircled/ensquared energy,
  • Diffraction MTF vs. field, frequency, defocus and as 2-dimensional function,
  • Strehl ratio vs. field or wavelength,
  • Interferogram analysis,
  • Zernike wavefront fit,
  • Gaussian beam analysis,
  • Coupling efficiency analysis.
Diffraction Point Spread Function (PSF): The PSF is calculated by FFT from the wavefront aberration. The ray density in the pupil may be increased to improve the accuracy of the PSF. The PSF may be displayed as perspective wire-grid plot, gray-scale intensity plot, false color plot or "true" color plot.

Not included in OpTaliX-LT
Diffraction Point Spread Function (PSF):
Shown as gray-scale intensity plot.

Not included in OpTaliX-LT
Diffraction MTF: The Diffraction Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) is computed by autocorrelation of the complex pupil function (derived from wavefront). It may be computed vs. field (as shown left), vs. spatial frequency, vs. focus position or as a 2-dimensional MTF at a given field number. MTF vs. field position is always shown for three spatial frequencies.

Not included in OpTaliX-LT
Diffraction MTF: As shown to the left, diffraction MTF is plotted vs. spatial frequency for all specified fields.

Not included in OpTaliX-LT
Wavefront: Plot wavefront aberration vs. fields or wavelength. Vignetting is also correctly reproduced.

Not included in OpTaliX-LT
Strehl ratio: Plot Strehl ratio vs. field or wavelength. The parametric plot to the left shows Strehl ratio vs. wavelength for a typical apochromatic refractor lens, each curve representing a separate field point. The blue curve is on-axis while the red curve is at a semi-field diagonal of 0.5o.

Not included in OpTaliX-LT

Interferogram Analysis

Synthetic interferograms may be computed from the system wavefront, which simulate the results obtained in an interferometric test setup. Aperture obscurations (as shown left) and vignetting are taken into account. Following a tolerance simulation, not only the theoretical interferogram but also the expected result of a real manufactured system can be obtained. The wavefront, which generates the interferogram, is shown to the right of the plot.

Not included in OpTaliX-LT

Examples of Physical Optics Propagation

Free Space Propagation using the Angular Spectrum Method

The following figures show the computed intensity patterns at various distances from a circular aperture. The computations were carried out on a discrete 512 x 512 mesh using Fast Fourier Transform (FFT).

Circular aperture, illuminated by a uniform plane wave. Propagation distance z = 0.

Fresnel number = 18

Fresnel number = 4

Fresnel number = 1

Free Space Propagation using Fresnel Integral

The Fresnel propagator is used for computing the far field distribution. The images below are taken for Fresnel numbers 4 and 1. They are identical to the corresponding images obtained with the angular spectrum method as shown above, except that the Fresnel propagator has been used.

Fresnel number = 4

Fresnel number = 1

Talbot Effect

The Talbot imaging phenomenon is present for periodic structures. The figure to the left shows the self imaging effect of a transmissive periodic grating in the region of Fresnel diffraction. The structure is illuminated by a plane wave.

The side lobes are due to the finite extent of the grating structure.

Double Pinhole

In this example the input screen contains two very small apertures (pinholes): a Youngs interferometer. The results of interference are shown for two positions behind the screen.

Input field

Full overlap of beams. Note the slight ellipticity, which is due to the rectangular "pinholes", having a 4:5 aspect ratio.


OpTaliX calculates coupling efficiency using single-mode and multi-mode fibers. In the multi-mode case, all modes supported in step-index fibers or gradient-index fibers are calculated in the receiving fiber. In the source fiber, the fundamental mode is used.

Multi-mode step-index fiber :

Browse through all modes exited.
Fiber parameters are : n1 = 1.51,
n2 = 1.5, ra = 0.025mm, l = 1.55mm.

Multi-mode gradient-index fiber :

Browse through the first 36 modes.
Fiber parameters are: n1 = 1.51,
n2 = 1.5, ra = 0.025mm, l = 1.55mm.
Modes shown are from (m,n) = (0,0)
to (m,n) = (5,5).


Optimization of an optical system requires the solution of a highly nonlinear problem. It is the process by which the aberrations of a lens are minimized by changing selected lens data (variables). Two types of optimization algorithms are available;

KT -optimization, minimizes an error function by a damped-least-square (DLS) method subject to solving constraints using Lagrange multipliers and application of the Kuhn-Tucker optimality condition,
LM -optimization, solves a problem using a modified Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm.

The merit function is constructed from almost any command relating to performance or construction data, thus allowing unlimited flexibility in the definition of the error function (also called a merit function). Besides minimization, boundary constraints accept logical operators like

  =   (equal),
  <   (less than)
  >   (greater than).

User-defined variables and functions will allow an even broader range of constraints in optimization, for example,

$z = [efl]+23.12
@xyz == [thi s2]+[thi s4]+$z
@xyz > 10

Defining Optimization Variables, Targets and Constraints

Edit variables, targets and constraints comfortably in a single window. The definition of a user merit function accepts all commands relating to surface data, system data and performance data. This includes arithmetic expressions, a large number of built-in mathematical functions and lens database items as also shown in the macro examples. See below a few examples of defining merit function elements:

efl = 100Focal length (EFL) shall be precisely 100 mm.
syl < 70Constrain system length (first surface to last surface) to less than 70 mm.
spd f1..3 w3..4 0Minimize rms-spot diameter (spd) at field points 1 to 3 and wavelength numbers 3 to 4 (Target is 0).
spd 0As above, minimize rms-spot diameter. Absence of field and wavelength qualifier implies all fields and wavelengths. This is one of the easiest yet powerful optimization target.
thi s1 = [OAL] - 2*[thi s4]Use arithmetic operators and lens database items given in [ ] brackets to define complex targets.
bfl = sqrt(tan(2))Use intrinsic functions to define complex targets.
@myfkn == [oal s1..6]-5.0Construct a user-defined function to be used later.
@myfkn > 10Use a previously defined funtion to define a constraint in optimization.

User Defined Graphics

User defined graphics (UGR) are two-dimensional plots of any variable parameter against any performance measure available in OpTaliX. Parameters and functions may be any command, as it would be entered in the command line.

As an example, coupling efficiency (CEF) in a DWDM photonics system is plotted as a function of wavelength. The system in use is a SELFOCTM fiber coupler with a 107-layer DWDM filter designed for 100 GHz channel spacing.

With transmission and polarization analysis turned on, the impact of the DWDM filter characteristics on coupling efficiency is clearly reproduced:

Glass Diagrams and Glass Manager

Selection of optical glasses is supported by plotting glass characteristics against several criteria (primary dispersion, partial dispersion, Buchdahl chromatic coordinate, different wavelength regimes, etc.). A spreadsheet editor allows the user to add new (user defined) glasses or materials to the glass catalogs. The glass catalogs from Schott, Ohara, Hoya, Corning, Sumita, Cargille and LightPath are already supplied. In addition, many infrared and plastic materials are available in the supplied catalogs.

Glass Map:
Glasses from one or more glass manufacturers can be plotted vs. primary dispersion (Abbe-number) and refractive index.
Glass Map:
Plots the glasses on a linear dispersion scale (nF - nC) instead of Abbe-number
Partial Dispersion:
The partial dispersion for several wavelength regimes (VIS, NIR, MIR, TIR) can also be plotted. Plots can also be shown in terms of the Buchdahl chromatic coordinate as shown below.
Buchdahl Partials:
Plots the dispersion characteristics of optical glasses in terms of the Buchdahl chromatic coordinate h1 and h2. This is a further aid to selecting glasses for apochromatic designs.
GradiumTM Profile:
Plots the refractive index profile of GradiumTM glass as a function of axial position and wavelength.


The design, analysis and optimization of dielectric multi-layer coatings (thin films) is seamlessly integrated to OpTaliX. Thus, it is not necessary to perform a multi-layer design in a separate program and then transfer the data to the optical design. Coatings may have up to 200 layers. Material dispersion and absorption is taken into account.

Coatings may be attached to any optical surface to perform transmission or polarization analysis on system level. The effects of coatings are also included in diffraction analysis such as MTF, PSF, coupling efficiency, etc. A library of standard coating designs (anti-reflection, high- and low-pass filters, band-pass filters, etc.) as well as the most commonly used coating materials is included.

Coating Transmissivity and Reflectivity:
Coating performance may be displayed for reflection or transmission vs. wavelength, incidence angle or both. A spreadsheet coating editor allows modification of the multilayer stack.

Coatings can be optimized (refined). Individual layers may be excluded from refinement.

Not included in OpTaliX-LT
Phase Change:
Plot phase change on reflection or transmission vs. wavelength.

Not included in OpTaliX-LT
Combined plot:
Plot reflection/transmission vs. wavelength and incidence angle simultaneously for any input polarization state. Angular dependencies of coating properties ("blue shift"), as shown for a band pass filter on the plot to the left, are clearly indicated.

Not included in OpTaliX-LT
Coating Target Editor :
Create and edit targets used in coating optimization (refinement). Targets may be reflectivity or transmissivity in either S- or T-plane or may be specified as an average of both.

Not included in OpTaliX-LT

OpTaliX Macro Language

OpTaliX includes a macro language to allow custom analysis and computations. The macro language encompasses the following areas:

  • Use arithmetic expressions anywhere numeric input items are expected.
  • Have access to a broad range of lens parameter and performance data, which can be retrieved from the program's internal database and can be reused in arithmetic expressions.
  • Access to the most common mathematical functions (sin, tan, cos, sinh, cosh, tanh, asin, acos, atan, sqrt, exp, log, log10, logn, besj0, besj1, besjn, abs, min, max, aint, anint)
  • User-defined variables and functions
  • Pass parameters to macros
  • Include macros in other macro files and build complex tasks from elementary macros or commands.
  • Loop constructs: DO - ENDDO and WHILE - ENDWHILE
  • Conditional constructs: IF - ELSE - ELSEIF - ENDIF
  • File and data handling: OPEN, CLOSE, READ, WRITE/PRINT

A macro is a sequence of OpTaliX commands, arithmetic expressions and database items stored in a file. Macro features can be used throughout the whole program, e.g. in the command line, in the definition of the optimization merit function and in user defined graphics. Macros can be run from either command or GUI mode.


The following examples indicate some of the macro capabilities, with increasing complexity from top to bottom. The macro "mymacro.mac" is executed from the command line by

run mymacro.mac 3 0.546

In the sample command above, two parameters are passed to the macro. the macro may also executed (run) from the menu. Here are some commented sample entries in a macro file:

! Example macroThe character  !  indicates a comment. This line is not executed.

$x = 15Defines a user-defined variable and assigns a value. User-defined variables always begin with the $-character.

@xxx = sqrt($x)+[efl]Defines a user-defined function. User-defined functions always begin with the @-character.

res c:\temp\demo.otxRestores an optical system

lis ; vie; fanMultiple commands/expressions can be entered in a single line, separated by semicolons.

sca sa 2*piUse previously defined constants in expressions. This command scales all surfaces (sa) by 2p.

wl w%1 %2Use parameters (%1, %2), which have been passed to the macro from the command line. From the parameters given above, the command translates to:  wl w3 0.546

print 'Radius of surface 2 is:' [rdy s2]Retrieve lens parameter or performance parameter and use it in other expressions. Here  rdy s2  is the radius on surface 2.

thi s3 sqrt(2)*[thi s2]Use lens database items in more complex expressions and assign it to other lens parameter.

print 'Square root of 2: ' 2*sqrt( &
Span expressions over several lines. Continuation is defined by the & character.

do $x = 1,9,2
   print $x sqrt($x)
DO-loop construct. Nesting depth is 20.

if ($a > 3) then
   print '$ a is greater than 3'
   print '$ a is less than or equal to 3'
IF construct. Nesting depth is 20.

Intrinsic Functions:

There exist also an extensive set of intrinsic functions, which may be used in the command line, in macros, in defining optimization constraints or in specifying lens description parameters:

sin(r)sine of angle in radians
cos(r)cosine of angle in radians
tan(r)tangent of angle in radians
log(x)natural logarithm
log10(x)common logarithm
logn(n,x)logarithm base n
sqrt(x)square root
cosh(r)hyperbolic cosine
sinh(r)hyperbolic sine
tanh(r)hyperbolic tangent
besj0(r)Bessel function 1st kind, order 0
besj1(r)Bessel function 1st kind, order 1
besjn(n,x)Bessel function 1st kind, order n
aint(x)truncate to a whole number
anint(x)real representation of the nearest whole number
abs(x)absolute value
min(a,b)minimum value
max(a,b)maximum value

ISO Element Drawing

Element drawings in accordance to the ISO 10110 standard can be generated from the lens prescription data. Such drawings are useful when a lens design is prepared for fabrication. The tolerances used in element drawings are taken from the previously entered or calculated tolerances.


Interferometric Surface Deformations

Models non-symmetric deformations on optical surfaces. Typically, such data is obtained from interferometric measurements of lens surfaces or complete optical systems or from external programs that generate appropriate data files. The data in an interferogram file can represent either surface deformation or wavefront perturbation data.
Typical applications are: Evaluate the system performance ''as-built'', model impact of atmosphere

Measured surface deformation:          Computed Point Spread Function:

Ghost Image Analysis

Ghost image analysis is based on the built-in inverse ray trace algorithm, which does not require to rebuild the optical system, that is inserting and duplicating surfaces which represent the ghost path. This allows instantaneous ghost analysis and a very fast way to identifying the most disturbing surface combinations.

Conventional Ray TraceGhost Ray Trace

Ghost Images are due to the fact that optical systems can form unintended images due to reflections between pairs of surfaces. All lens surfaces reflect light to an extent depending on the refractive index of the glass itself respectively on the type of anti-reflection coating applied to these surfaces. Light reflected from the inner surfaces of a lens will be reflected again and may form reasonably well-defined images close to the image surface. Such spurious images are called ghost images.

The number of possible surface combinations (pairs) which may contribute to ghost images is n(n-1)/2, where n is the number of lens surfaces in the system. As the number of surfaces grows, the probability of ghost problems also increases. For example, a zoom lens with 10 lenses (20 surfaces) gives 190 possible ghost images.

Photorealistic Rendering of Ghosts:
OptaliX provides the most realistic and accurate ghost analysis. It offers a fully automatic search of ghost effects by evaluating ALL possible surface pairs in a lens which may contribute to ghosts. That includes wavelength dependent effects of multilayer coatings on optical surfaces, material absorption and vignetting. The image below is the rendered ghost image on a 10-lens element objective including AR-coatings and absorption in lenses.

 Unlike in other optical design programs, OpTaliX does not require a preselection of the most disturbing ghost surface pairs on a paraxial basis (which can be extremely misleading, if not totally wrong), nor does it require to rebuild a design for each individual ghost surface pair, writing macros, storing massive ray data to files and/or display the data with the help of external programs, as required in other software packages.

OptaliX entirely avoids such tedius and inefficient work! Note that the image to the left was rendered from the scratch in about 20 minutes on a 1.7GHz Pentium machine, including all (184) surface combinations, AR-coatings and absorption effects, whereas in other programs you will need hours or days for creating and testing macros and program interfaces.
Ghost Raytrace in GRIN Elements:
This example shows the ghost raytrace in a radial GRIN element (SelfocTM rod) where the first reflection takes place on surface 3 and the second reflection takes place on surface 2. The surface numbers indicate that additional dummy surfaces are NOT required to simulate the ghost path. This way, ghost analysis is instantaneous.


The illumination feature can be used for both imaging and non-imaging systems. Light distribution can be analyzed at any arbitrary surface and is shown as wire-grid plot, contour plot, false-colour plot, or as a photorealistic image (RGB). Includes transmission and absorption effects, vignetting and spectral weighting.

Light Sources

The following light sources are supported:

  • Flat emitting sources, with circular, elliptical or rectangular shape,
  • Bitmap sources, that is, the spatial source emittance is defined in a bitmap image (e.g. photo of a source),
  • Ray sources, i.e. the source emission is characterized by rays.

In addition, for all flat emitting sources and bitmap sources, the angular emission characteristics can be adjusted, including Lambertian characteristics or arbitrary cosx emission characteristics.

Sources may be arbitrarily defined in 3D-space. The number of rays traced for a specific source is unlimited.

Imaging of a 2D Bitmap Picture
Use photos (in PNG, GIF formats) as a source for rendering the image or light distribution at any arbitrary surface in the optical system. The example below shows the blurred image of an eagle.

Source defined as bitmapExtended image using the illumination feature

Ray Sources:
Ray Source Models describe the spacial and angular emittance characteristics of a source by a collection of real rays, where each ray is defined by spatial and angular coordinates, and intensity. Ray sources may be defined in ASCII files or binary files. Binary source files accept the ASAP *.dis file format.

Photo taken from a Tungsten lampImage Analysis of Tungsten Source based on ray model (1 Mio rays)

Analysis Options

Photorealistic rendering of light distributionContour plotSlices